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Book Cover: Mission: Atlantis

Over half a century of research and more than ten years in the making, Rod Martin’s book, Mission: Atlantis is finally nearing completion. This post provides the illustrations used in the book so that readers can view them in a larger format or in color (for those with black-and-white interior illustrations).

The figures and tables are provided in the sequence in which they appear in the book, along with their captions.

Mission: Atlantis picture. School of Athens, by Raphael, with Plato and Aristotle.

Figure 1.1—Part of the fresco known as The School of Athens. Plato holds Timaeus, while Aristotle, his most famous student, holds his own Nicomachean Ethics. Painting (1511, detail): Italian artist, Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino, also known as Raphael (1483–1520).

Mission: Atlantis picture. Artist's impression of Atlantis and the North Atlantic 9620 BC.

Figure 1.2—An artist’s hypothetical map of Atlantis, western North America and western Europe. Even if Atlantis existed, this map is largely speculation, but based on Plato’s description and the underlying geology of the region. The size shown here is close to our minimum estimate for the island’s extent (see Appendix, Methodologies, for details). Copyright © Rod Martin, Jr.

Mission: Atlantis table showing comparison of various proposed locations to Plato's description.

Table 1.1—Comparison of proposed Atlantis locations graded by Plato’s criteria. Copyright © Rod Martin, Jr.

Mission: Atlantis picture. Comparison of Greek "meson" with "mezon."

Figure 1.3—Meson and mezon in the archaic capital letters of Attic Greece and Plato’s youth.

Mission: Atlantis picture. Ancient Egyptian picture of god Nu carrying Solar Boat above flood waters.

Figure 4.1—Egyptian god, Nu, carrying Solar Boat across sky, above flood waters.

Mission: Atlantis picture. Graph of temperature and CO2 from GISP2 Greenland ice core proxies.

Figure 5.1—The temperature and CO2 levels for the duration of the Holocene interglacial to the present. The original graph was created by Professor Ole Humlum. It has been modified by adding additional green bars prior to the Minoan Warm Period, to show the periodicity of the major warm period cycle. Also, the original graph, based on GISP2 ice core proxies, ended about 1850. This line was extended in red up to today’s average temperature level, and a horizontal line added across the entire graph representing today’s temperature. Notice how CO2 levels for the first few thousand years were trending downward while temperatures were trending upward, and how temperatures then trended downward while CO2 levels trended upward.

Mission: Atlantis picture. Field of Dryas octopetala flowers.

Figure 7.1Dryas octopetala, after which the Younger Dryas and Older Dryas cold periods were named. The term “octopetala” refers to the flower’s eight petals. Photo: by Steinsplitter (CC BY-SA 3.0).

Mission: Atlantis picture. Map of Ice Age glacial period Lake Agassiz, Canada (19th century).

Figure 7.2—An early, 19th century map of Lake Agassiz, now believed to underestimate the lake’s extent. Notice Hudson Bay in the Northeast and the Great Lakes to the Southeast.

Mission: Atlantis picture. Satellite view of Canary Islands and NW Africa.

Figure 7.3—Satellite view of the Canary Islands in the NE Atlantic, 400 kilometers NW of the nation of Western Sahara, Africa. La Palma Island, with Cumbre Vieja, resides in the upper left of the picture. Photo: NASA (PD).

Mission: Atlantis picture. Map of mega-tsunami from hypothetical collapse of Cumbre Vieja.

Figure 7.4—Mega-tsunami from hypothetical collapse of Cumbre Vieja, 6 hours after initial event. From Ward and Day, 2001, © American Geophysical Union. Use does not imply endorsement.

Mission: Atlantis table showing proxy evidence of a volcanic eruption 9620.77 BC.

Table 8.1—Part of the GISP2 record of data centered on 9620.77 BC, showing a moderately large volcanic eruption followed by another, smaller trace about two years later. It remains unknown if the second, more recent record is a continuation of the earlier eruption or a separate event.

Mission: Atlantis picture. Painting of Archimedes by Fetti (1620).

Figure 9.1—Archimedes by Fetti (1620) showing the Greek scientist at work.

Mission: Atlantis picture. Diagram of the void left by a sinking island.

Figure 9.2—The void left by the tectonic collapse of Atlantis required that all the Oceans of the world rush in to fill that void.

Mission: Atlantis picture. Graph of 17,000 years of sea-level rise, highlighting the slowdown during the Younger Dryas and sudden 2-meter drop at end of that Big Freeze.

Figure 9.3—Graph from R. Fairbanks (1989). It shows Barbados sea level curve based on radiocarbon-dated A. palmata (filled circles) compared with A. palmata age-depth data (open circles) for four other Caribbean island locations. The slow-down in sea level rise is apparent during the Younger Dryas. The dates shown for the start and end of the YD were less precisely known then. Current estimates place these events at about 10,900 and 9600 BC. Additions to the original graph have been made in red. © Nature. Use does not imply endorsement.

Mission: Atlantis picture. Map of Asia (Minor) and Ancient Libya (coastal North Africa) as approximate size of Atlantis.

Figure 9.4—Estimate of the extent of Ancient Libya and Asia Minor—the size of Atlantis. Underlying map courtesy CIA (PD).

Mission: Atlantis table of ocean and major sea sizes.

Table 9.1—Sizes of the various oceans and large seas of the world.

Mission: Atlantis pictures. Diagrams of the three types of tectonic plate boundaries.

Figure 13.1—The three types of tectonic plate boundary interaction involve (L to R) converging, transform and diverging. The convergent type of boundary has two sub-types—subduction, when relatively thin plate slides underneath the overlying plate, and convergent compression, when the subduction is blocked by an impediment, like continental material that is too thick to become subducted. Illustrations: DomDomEgg (CC BY 4.0).

Mission: Atlantis picture. hypothetical Euler poles of Africa plate movement relative to Eurasia before about 36 Mya.

Figure 13.2—Hypothetical Euler poles for Africa, relative to the Eurasia, before approximately 36 Mya, while the compressive folding in the Azores region was still underway. Base illustration of world (#1582347): qimono (CC0) Pixabay.

Mission: Atlantis picture. Euler poles today for Africa plate rotation relative to Eurasia.

Figure 13.3—Euler poles for Africa today, long after compressive folding at the Azores forced the Africa to change its movement relative to the Eurasia. Base illustration of world (#1582347): qimono (CC0) Pixabay.

Mission: Atlantis picture. Hoggar Mountains, Algeria.

Figure 17.1—Hoggar National Park, Assekrem, Tamanrasset, Algeria. Photo: Mohammed Amri (CC BY-SA 4.0).

Mission: Atlantis picture. Map of Algeria, North Africa with location of Hoggar Mountains.

Figure 17.2—Map of Algeria, North Africa and the location of the Hoggar Mountains, far from tectonic plate boundaries. Map: Eric Gaba (CC BY-SA 3.0).

Mission: Atlantis picture. One of Baalbek, Lebanon Trilithon megalithic stones. Man standing nearby for comparison.

Figure 19.1—One of the Baalbek, Lebanon Trilithon megalithic stones. Please notice the man standing at the lower left portion of the photograph. Courtesy R. Cedric Leonard.

Mission: Atlantis picture. 6,000-year-old script from NW Spain giving name of Atlantis and Tartessos in non-Greek spelling.

Figure 20.1—Characters found at La Coruña, Galicia, in the northwest corner of Spain. These were apparently etched in bone dated to 4,000 BC. Courtesy R. Cedric Leonard.

Mission: Atlantis picture. Map of Old World distribution of Y-DNA haplogroup G.

Figure 21.1—Map of the Old World distribution of Y-DNA haplogroup G. Map: Maulucioni (CC BY 3.0).

Mission: Atlantis picture. Map of distribution of mtDNA haplogroup X in Europe, Middle East and North Africa.

Figure 21.2—Map of European and Middle East concentrations of mtDNA haplogroup X. Map ©, used with permission.

Mission: Atlantis picture. Diagram of common cultural anthropologist's approach to interpreting myth.

Figure 22.1—Diagram of one method of interpreting myth, utilizing the details of culture to extrapolate the intentions behind the details of myth.

Mission: Atlantis picture. Diagram demonstrating how cultural anthropologists could be misinterpreting myth.

Figure 22.2—Diagram of another possibility of the relationship between myth and meaning. This demonstrates the disconnect between Truth and the interpretation.

Mission: Atlantis picture. Diagram of new approach to interpreting myth, using imagination to bridge the unknown.

Figure 22.3—Diagram of our new method of interpreting myth, using imagination to bridge the gap of the unknown. From this we have a hypothesis to test. Not always will we be able to test a hypothesis right away. Testing may require that we wait until new evidence is discovered. Picture of bridge: Lextotan (CC0) Pixabay.

Mission: Atlantis picture. Photo of stone carving of Mesoamerican feathered serpent surrounding human.

Figure 22.4—Feathered Serpent, La Venta Stele 19. Notice the man at the center of this “feathered serpent.” Notice his head gear, and the object in his right hand. What are the meanings of these? Photo © Audrey and George Delange, used with permission.

Mission: Atlantis picture. Images of feathered serpents from cultures around the world.

Figure 22.5—Six forms of feathered serpent (Left-to-Right): Algonquin (Mishipizheu), Aztec (Quetzalcoatl as depicted in the Codex Borbonicus), Toltec (early), Olmec (La Venta Stele 19), Egyptian and Chinese. Omec Photo: © Audrey and George Delange, used with permission.

Mission: Atlantis picture. Map of SE United States, Caribbean and northern South America with sea levels from approximately 9620 BC.

Figure 29.1—Approximate sea level 9620 BC for the Caribbean, southeast part of North America, and northern South America. This is approximately 58 meters lower than sea level today. Map courtesy of © 2020. Use does not imply endorsement.

Mission: Atlantis picture. Map of Europe and North Africa, showing sea levels from about 9620 BC.

Figure 29.2—Approximate sea level 9620 BC for the Mediterranean Sea and western Europe. This is approximately 58 meters lower than sea level today. Map courtesy of © 2020. Use does not imply endorsement.

Mission: Atlantis picture. Bathymetric map of NE Atlantic Ocean and the region given by Plato for Atlantis.

Figure 30.1—Detail of general bathymetric chart of the oceans, world ocean bathymetry, showing northeast Atlantic Ocean and the location of Atlantis. Map: Courtesy GEBCO (2014).

Mission: Atlantis picture. Geological Timeline of Earth.

Figure 31.1—Geological Timeline of Earth. This shows the entire life of Earth and some of the highlighted events. The shaded green box on the right represents the span of the next timeline, that of Multicellular Animal Life.

Mission: Atlantis picture. Life Timeline after the appearance of animals.

Figure 31.2—Multicellular Animal Life Timeline. The slender blue box on the far right shows the span of the Current Ice Age Timeline shown in the next figure.

Mission: Atlantis picture. Ice Age Timeline including the current Ice Age.

Figure 31.3—Current Ice Age. This shows the span of time leading up to and including the Pleistocene Ice Age, including the current interglacial, the Holocene. The slender golden box at the right indicates the span of the upcoming Eemian Timeline. The temperature graph in the background of this timeline is that of climate changes for a little more than five million years as our world inexorably dropped into the frigid lock of another Ice Age. The 41 kyr cycle and 100 kyr cycle refer to the average length of time between interglacial periods, locked in place by two different Milankovitch cycles—the second one taking over about 1.1 Mya.

Mission: Atlantis picture. Eemian Timeline including the start of Homo sapiens, the glacial periods on either side of the Eemian, and the two most recent interglacial periods.

Figure 31.4—Eemian Timeline. This includes the last 200,000 years, which is the span of time some anthropologists think modern man has roamed the planet. The green bar at the right indicates the span of the Holocene Timeline. The graph in the background includes temperature and CO2 proxies from Epica Dome C, Antarctica (magenta = CO2, dark blue = temperature).

Mission: Atlantis picture. Holocene Timeline, including 3,000 years leading up to the initial Holocene warm-up.

Figure 31.5—Holocene Timeline. This includes the last 20,000 years, the lead-in to the Holocene early warm-up, the Younger Dryas and the Holocene proper.

Mission: Atlantis picture. Map of NE Atlantic Ocean with overlays showing rectangles of minimum and nominal size estimates for Atlantis.

Figure 31.6—Map of northeast Atlantic Ocean with overlays of the minimum estimate for Atlantis (smaller, purple rectangle) and the recommended (nominal) size for Atlantis (larger, red rectangle).

Mission: Atlantis picture. Map of Atlantis based on nominal size estimate.

Figure 31.7—An artist’s conceptual map of Atlantis based on the nominal estimate of the island’s size before 9620 BC, and based on bathyspheric data of the northeast Atlantic Ocean floor. Copyright © Rod Martin, Jr.

Symbols Not Displaying Properly?

Some versions of the ebook do not display the text properly for some symbols. This is particularly true for Amazon’s Kindle software. Below you will find the text displayed properly for each of these locations. We apologize for the inconvenience. Amazon has been notified of the problem, but they don’t know when, or if, the problem will ever be fixed. In later versions of the Amazon ebook, alternate symbols were used.

If you notice any symbol not displaying properly for which the correct display is not included below, please contact us with the chapter number, the section name (if any) and a copy of the sentence in which the improperly displayed symbol is included.

Chapter 1—Plato’s Facts
Section: Why Minoan Crete Was Not Atlantis

Symbol: ≠ (not equal to)

We also have the priest telling Solon of the 1,000-year interregnum between the end of Atlantis and the new start of the Egyptian history. Because 900 – 800 ≠ 1,000, we have further confirmation that the Minoan “factor of ten” explanation is wrong.

Symbols: σ, ζ, Σ, Ζ (Greek letters)

Even with the lower case (miniscule) script that came later (σ and ζ), these two letters look nothing alike. Though the archaic forms of the capital letters were those used in Athens during Plato’s youth, the rulers of Athens in about 403 BC, when Plato was a young adult, mandated that Athenians abandon the archaic Attic alphabet and adopt the Ionian alphabet which used the more familiar Σ and Ζ used in modern Greek.

Chapter 6—Plato’s Date for Atlantis
Section: Modern Azores Climate

Symbols: ‘ and ” (minutes and seconds of arc)

Terceira Island, near the center of the Azores in all four cardinal directions, is at a latitude of 38° 43ʹN, similar to that of Washington, DC (38° 54ʹ 17ʺN), New York (40° 39ʹ 40ʺN) and Chicago (41° 52ʹ 55ʺN).

Chapter 12—Multiple Problems with Skepticism
Section: Safe Science vs. Controversy

Symbol: x (multiplication)

If we were to create an equation to express this, it might look something like this:

E = I – (qA)

Chapter 17—Geological Evidence
Section: Corvo-Flores Enigma and the Azores “Hot Spot”

Symbol: ‘ (minute of arc)

As we go west-northwestward along the Hawaiian island chain, the islands tend to become smaller, more weathered and older. After the last island, the progression continues with underwater mountains called “seamounts.” Beyond the end of the Hawaiian Islands, the direction of older seamounts changes abruptly toward the north-northeast. This shift in direction means that the overall movement of the Pacific plate changed some 27 million years ago. The oldest, and one of the smallest mountains in this chain is underwater Meiji Seamount or Guyot, located at 53° 12ʹN, 164° 30ʹE.

Appendix, Methodologies
Section: Sea Level Drop
Sub-section: Sea Level Drop from Tectonic Collapse

Symbol: x (multiplication)

Va = Aa ∙ da


Va = Total volume of void created by the sinking of Atlantis.

Aa = Total land area of Atlantis.

da = Average amount of Atlantis drop (subsidence) below sea level.


Vo = Aodo

Vo = Total void created in the oceans of the world.

Ao = Total surface area of the oceans and major, contiguous seas.

do = Resultant drop in sea level worldwide.

This ignores differences actual average ocean depth because of Earth’s rotation, tides, the shapes of continental margins, rates of evaporation and other effects.

Now, it is simple to see that any void created in the oceans of the world will be evenly distributed amongst all of the seas of the world, because water is a liquid. Therefore,

Vo= Va

Thus, by substituting equivalent values,

Va = Aodo

and, solving for the drop in the oceans,

do = Va / Ao

Also, substituting the original values for the Atlantis volume,

do =(Aa ∙ da)/ Ao

Appendix, Methodologies
Section: Rate of Tectonic Growth

Symbol: x (multiplication)

Let us say that the impediment occurred about 55 Mya. The change in plate movement occurred about 36 Mya. This was a change from one of direct, linear progress northward, to one of rotation around a Euler pole, of the Africa with respect to the Eurasia, some 1,950 kilometers south-southeast of Santa Maria Island, in the Azores. This gives us roughly 19 million years of northward movement converted into crustal folding. At 2 cm per year, this gives us about 380 kilometers (19,000,000 ∙ 2 cm).

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